Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliogroaphy

David, L., (2007). “Behaviorism.” Learning Theories, January 31, 2007. Retrieved from

Behaviourism, a learning theory first described by B.F. Skinner, includes changing behaviours of learners through systems of rewards to reinforce positive behaviours, and consequences to serve as deterrents for less desirable behaviours. Through this theory, learners are essentially a blank slate and behaviours are shaped and learned through these systems of rewards and consequences.

Foroux, D. (2018). The active mindset: A sure way to avoid all boredom with life. Retrieved from

Darius Foroux’s brief article The Active Mindset: A Sure Way to Avoid All Boredom with Life takes Dr. Carol Dweck’s Growth Mindset concept to a new level, adding activity versus passivity to the mindset concept. With a passive mindset we wait for instruction from others. With an active mindset, we are constantly learning, inquisitive and interested, and ready to take on new challenges without being prompted.

Accordig to Foroux, “… the difference between people who have an active mindset and people with a passive mindset. The former owns his destiny. The latter leaves it up to others.”

Haave, N. (2014). Six questions that will bring your teaching philosophy into focus. Retrieved from

Harapnuik, D. Educational development philosophy [web log]. Retrieved from

In this brief blog post, Dr Harapnuik details his process for designing educational experiences through a leadership by example approach. Starting with the “why”, and moving through purposefully creating significant learning environments, Harapnuik discusses the need to consider expected learning outcomes, and then aligning those outcomes to activities throughout the learning experience. This approach helps to ensure that the learner understands the relevance of each activity toward achieving learning goals.

Harapnuik, D. Learning philosophy. Retrieved from

In his blog post Learning Philosophy Harapnuik describes the difference between teaching and learning, where ‘teaching’ is focused on the knowledge held by one individual and imparted to the learners. Bringing learning philosophy into the equation of education allows us to take a more learner-centered approach, tailoring the learning experiences to meet the needs of the learners, not expecting the learners to conform to the ways of the educator.

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved from


Taylor, E., & Cranton, P. (2012). The handbook of transformative learning: Theory, research, and practice.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This book addresses a variety of educational practices that shift the focus from teacher-centered instruction to more transformative educational approaches that change the way learning happens.

Warby, W. (2013). Leaves [Photo]. Retrieved from, CC-BY 2.0.

Photo retrieved from, of leaves, used as backdrop for a quote by Albert Einstein.

Watkins, C. (2005). Classrooms as learning communities: What’s in it for schools? New York, NY: Routledge.

Learning is a social process. This book explores the classroom as a learning community. The term “learning community” implies that the collective of learners is like-minded with similar goals and interests. Learning communities are a place for collaboration and interaction. A learning community within a classroom would encourage social development and learning to occur simultaneously, with all learners taking part in the building of knowledge.

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Weimer helps shift the focus of education from teacher to learner,stressing the importance of the needs of the learner. Using reflection as a critical tool in the process, she describes her own transformation from the “sage on the stage” to more of a facilitator and guide. Weimer helps educators explore ways to shift their teaching style to a more student-centered approach that helps learners take ownership for their learning and develop autonomy.